This study presents policies, practices and statistics on unaccompanied minor asylum seekers from arrival until settlement or return. It is a contribution to a comparative study by the European Migration Network.
Reducing sickness absence (SA), in particular long-term SA, is high on the political agenda, and by extension, finding the causes or mechanisms that lead to SA. Working conditions, family situation, and health status are core determinants of SA. However, findings on the effects of different factors are far from conclusive. There remains a large "unexplained" element for SA. Despite recognition in the scientific literature that values, attitudes and norms likely contribute to variations in SA, empirical research on this topic is still relatively scarce. The project aims to fill this knowledge gap by studying the influence of values, attitudes and norms on SA, more particularly, their role in creating social patterns in SA. The project will utilize large-scale longitudinal survey data in combination with longitudinal register data, enabling us to apply a multidimensional and dynamic approach to the study of the interaction between values and attitudes with health, work and family factors in relation to SA in different social groups. The project is also innovative in that we will conduct a vignette study among employees and employers with a survey experiment that will help us to analyze potential differences in norms concerning men and women's use of SA.
Key research questions will be 1) to what extent attitudes towards SA vary across gender, age, socioeconomic position and place of residence, 2) which individual attitudes and values predict subsequent SA and to what extent this impact differs across social groups, 3) to what extent values and attitudes can help explain differences in the use of SA across social groups, alongside other explanatory variables such as health status, work situation and family situation 4) to what extent individuals' values and attitudes moderate the relationship between health status, work situation and family situation, and SA, and 5) to what extent we find different norms for the use of SA for men and for women.
Fafo and the Institute for Social Research are carrying out the project, and it is led by Fafo.
There is considerable research and debate on the reform of the old age pension in the National Insurance Scheme in Norway, but less is known about the related changes in the contractual pension scheme (AFP) and the consequences of the new regulations for occupational pension schemes in the private sector.
Researching the overall pension system and the interaction between its different parts is crucial in order to understand changes in the underlying logic of the overall system and the strategic manoeuvres of various key actors, as well as its impact on the distribution of individual total pension levels and the resulting effect on extended work careers.
The project will therefore focus on the overall pension system and the interplay between various schemes.
The overall ambition is to map out and model the full impact of the 2011 pension reform, to improve understanding of the policy processes shaping various parts of the reform, and to place these findings in a broader European context.
The main objective of the project is to analyse, both statistically and discursively, the gender wage gap and the relationship between the gender wage gap and the gender care gap in different types of welfare state models, namely the Mediterranean model (Spain), the Continental model (Germany) the Anglo-Saxon model (UK) and the Nordic model (Norway and Iceland). Both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The quantitative analyses will be based on harmonized surveys such as the Wage Structure Survey, European Survey on Income and Living conditions and the Harmonized European Time use Survey, which can all be accessed from Eurostat. Qualitative individual and group interviews will be carried out among dual-earner couples and key informants in businesses, at workplaces and in unions in Spain, Norway and Iceland.
The main project team is made up of researchers from the Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology at the University of Valencia (Capitolina Díaz and Carles Simó as co-directors, Andrea Hernandez, T. Aguado Empar), who collaborate with two small teams of the department of Applied Economic and the department of Economic Analysis (Josep Banyuls, Josep Vicent Pitxer, Ernest Cano, Salvador Mendez, Marcela JABBAZ, M. Luisa Molto, Nevis Economy Lazarus, Rosario Sanchez) from the same university. The Icelandic and Norwegian teams are led by Professor Gudbjörg Linda Rafnsdóttir, University of Iceland, and senior researcher Ragni Hege Kitterød, Institute for Social Research.
The overall aim of the project is to examine how disruptive action aimed at doing harm and create fear influence the social capital and resilience of societies. The consequences of the terrorist attack on the 22nd of July 2011 are at the core of the project, but great emphasis is also placed on comparing experiences and consequences of disruptive events in different countries, more specifically in the US, Spain, France and Finland.
Deliberate and malicious disruptive actions such as terror can affect stocks of social capital. These effects play out differently in the short and long term and vary between contexts. Such disruptive action may enhance a sense of risk, worry and increased awareness and lead to political consequences such as decreased out group trust and political polarization.
By comparing five different societies, with different historical backgrounds and different experiences with terrorism, the project seeks to shed light on which factors are of importance in shaping societal reactions to disruptive events. If an enhanced sense of fear and awareness persists over time after a terrorist attack, this may influence social capital in society, in other words, networks and norms of collaboration. At the same time, the prevalence of social capital in a population can strengthen a society's resilience, for example by curbing fear and improving conditions for mass mobilizations in the aftermath of shocks.
When this project was first designed, we added the possibility of carrying out flash surveys in the aftermath of terrorist events, in the case that such events would occur in Europe or the US during the project period. After the Paris attacks in November 2015 we decided to do a comparative survey on fear of terrorism, trust and political reactions in our four countries, also including France.
Preliminary analyses show that levels of fear were considerably lower in Norway and Finland than in the three other countries right after the attacks, and that the populations in France, but also in Spain and the US expressed stronger reactions to the events. A set of comparative articles are now being developed based on these data, on the relationship between use of social media during the attacks and fear, on fear and attitudes towards different aspects of immigration policies and on the occurrence of online hate speech in this period.
After the Nice attack in July 2016 we also carried out a short survey in France. This survey will enable us to study changes in trust and fear in the period from the Paris attacks on and also, to discuss the consequences of being exposed to repeated terrorist attacks.
In order to delve more deeply into people’s experience of the danger of terrorism and what terrorism might potentially do to society, we carried out five focus group interviews in Norway, with participant in different age groups and with a Muslim and non-Muslim background. Among the themes discussed was the experience of 22nd of July and of the current danger of terrorism. Based on these interviews we will write papers about how different groups understand and interpret terrorism and about what conditions resilience.
In December we are carrying out a new wave of surveys in the five countries, which will also be useful for studying changes over time, and for evaluating the contextual factors that are of importance in shaping the responses to terrorism in different societies. In this survey we also examine how respondents react to different forms of terrorism, both right wing and ISIS-related.
Norway: Five years after Breivik killings, Kari Steen-Johnsen, 22.07.16, in Deutsche Welle
Wollebæk, Dag, Steen-Johnsen, Kari and Enjolras, Bernard. 2013. “Rallying Without Fear. Political Consequences of Terror in a High Trust Society”, in Sinclar, Samuel J. and Antonius, Daniel. The Political Consequences of Terror. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wollebæk, Dag, Enjolras, Bernard, Steen-Johnsen, Kari and Ødegård, Guro (2012). "After Utøya: How a High-Trust Society Reacts to Terror—Trust and Civic Engagement in the Aftermath of July 22". Political Science & Politics. 45 (1): 32-37
The project has two aims:
1) To acquire knowledge about institutional measures in NAV that aim to promote learning and increase competence, and to sum up research-based knowledge that discusses how these measures can develop NAV as a learning organization. This part of the project shall draw on recent Norwegian research on Nav.
2) Propose measures that will improve organizational learning in NAV. This part of the project will take as a starting point the strengths and weaknesses identified by research. Strengths and weaknesses in the existing organization will be discussed in the light of organizational measures and initiatives promoted within the organization, and in relation to the interplay between NAV and educational and research institutions.
The point of departure for the project is three profound changes sweeping across modern societies: women surpassing men in higher education, growing female labour force participation and more involved men in the family. This gender revolution influences the family formation process and is moving at different paces across countries, which calls for comparative research on the interplay between gender roles and the family formation process.
The project has a strong international profile and we apply an analytical approach where the family formation process involves different components: (A) union formation, (B) couple specialization, and (C) childbearing. This novel approach takes into account that the family formation process contains several components that influence each other: who enters unions and who partner with whom influence couple specialization and the relative economic position of men and women, which in turn influence childbearing, which may very well in return influence couple specialization. Union formation patterns are also expected to influence childbearing directly. We argue that it is necessary to include the union formation process in analyses of couple specialization and childbearing because it determines the socioeconomic correlates of selection into unions, as well as how socioeconomic characteristics affect choice of union. While several theoretical frameworks have been developed to understand the interplay of new gender roles and family behaviour at the societal level, there is need for more theories to better understand the mechanisms at the individual level.
Register data will be used for the in-depth analyses of Norway, while survey data will be used for the comparative analyses.
The aim of the project is to conduct and empirical investigation of the implications of the reformed pension system for benefit adequacy, social redistribution and gender equality while taking account also of the incentive structure provided by the new system of pension accrual.
The project is carried out in collaboration between Institute for social research (ISF) and Statistics Norway (SSB). The project is organised in three modules: The first module (A) comprises studies of the incentive structure created by the new system of pension accrual as well as its possible effects on labour supply using available up-to-date register data for the adult Norwegian population (FD-trygd). In the second module (B) we use the dynamic micro-simulation model (MOSART) developed by Statistics Norway to gain new insights into the distributive implications of the reformed system in a diachronic lifetime perspective. The sub-studies of the this module include analyses of the intra-cohort distribution of pension benefits, the impact of family sensitive benefit components on the distribution of household disposable income, and how the redistribution life-time income achieved by the pension system is modified by social inequalities in life-expectancy. The third module (C) uses in depth qualitative interviews and web-based surveys to study the way individuals and couples relate to the new system of pension accrual both in terms of its perceived fairness, its expected adequacy, and its motivational effect on labour supply. We focus in particular on the mixture of what we call 'family sensitive benefit components' in the reformed system: credits for child rearing, bequest of pension rights between married spouses, and differentiation of minimum benefits between singles and couples.
A main ambition of labour market programs is that young people with impaired work capacity and weak labour market attachment are given the opportunity to get a foothold in the labour market. Research shows that periods outside employment or education at a young age can have long-term consequences.
The purpose of this project was to map and systematize scientific research in the Nordic countries dealing with the effects of measures intended to insert/maintain vulnerable young people into the labour market. Our target group is young people between 15 and 30 years.
In the comparative analysis we include Germany, the UK and the Netherlands in addition to the five Nordic countries. These are countries that are similar to a greater or lesser extent in terms of culture, history, institutions and labour market functioning. Similarities, and contrasts between measures, countries and over time can contribute to a better understanding of their impact across the region.
Based on the literature collected we construct a data set which is in turn used to carry out a meta-analysis. A meta-analysis is a statistical tool used to summarize many different and sometimes contradictory results and is intended to provide more solid evidence of what is reliable, durable and robust research results relative to what can be obtained from individual studies.
All in all, the meta-analysis comprises approximately 425 effect estimates from 44 different research projects. Our conclusions confirm that training and wage subsidies give rise to more positive effect than work practice and public employment measures. It is also worth noting that the estimates tend to be more positive over time, which may indicate that a learning process occurs such that the measures are gradually becoming more efficient.
However, there is a large variation in the reported estimates, from clearly positive to definitely negative, which may indicate that there is indeed a significant variation in how well programs work for the target group they are designed for. In other words, there is no silver bullet. What is clear is that there are numerous examples of measures that seem to have had a positive impact, and that properly designed measures have the potential to help young people into work or further education.