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Gender differences in occupational- and sectoral labour mobility in Norway

Schedule: 2015-2017
Employer: Arbeids- og sosialdepartementet



Project Purpose

The purpose of the project is to examine the degree of gender segregation in the Norwegian labour market since the beginning of the 1990s. 

Project Approach

The project is fourfold: First, to map and examine trends in labour mobility between occupations, industries and sectors, and to identify occupations and educations with high turnover.

Secondly, to quantify and get insight into the contribution from i) changes in labour demand and ii) labour supply.

Thirdly, the project will shed light on trends in gender segregations over the lifecycle.

Fourth, map and systematize scientific research in Europe, focusing on the Nordic countries.

In addition we will perform comparative empirical analysis on the labour mobility patterns in Europe.  The main contribution of this project is to measure developments in gender segregation in the labour market and in the educational sector, over a long period of time. To our knowledge, the latter exercise for the first time.

Governing and Experiencing Citizenship in Multicultural Scandinavia

Schedule: 2015-2019
Employer: Norges forskningsråd

What are the relationships between policies and laws on citizenship and experiences of belonging, recognition and sense of community? The Governing and Experiencing Citizenship in Multicultural Scandinavia (GOVCIT) project will shed new light on relationships between citizenship and integration.

We do this through studying top-down policies and bottom-up lived experiences. The Scandinavian countries have undergone major cultural and social changes due to migration. Considering the homogeneity of the region, the

discrepancy in current citizenship regulation is remarkable. Requirements for citizenship acquisition differ: Norway is positioned in between liberal Sweden and restrictive Denmark. But both Sweden and Denmark permit dual citizenship, while Norway does not. Citizenship in Scandinavia has become eroded, as most substantial rights are attached to permanent residency, not to citizenship. Social cohesion at community level is an explicit aim for citizenship policy.

These macro-level paradoxes inform our study. We will learn more about these through document analysis and interviews with politicians and civil servants. At the individual level we recognize that identity cannot be legislated. Lived experiences are affected not by the letter of the law, but by practices, interpretations and negotiations. We are interested in the experiences of immigrants and descendants, as citizens or prospective citizens, which we will learn about through a Scandinavian survey. In Norway we also use ethnographic methods to capture lived experiences of people living in a diverse society. We are interested in the lived experiences of people both with and without an immigrant background, living in urban areas with diverse populations, and in scarcely populated areas far away from Oslo. 

Belonging, community and integration are key issues in ongoing public debates, to which the GOVICT project will contribute through a focus on the interface of governing and experiencing citizenship.

The project is headed by PRIO, in cooperation with Institute for Social Research, Department of Sociology and Human Geography at The University of Oslo, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM) and Department of Political Science at Aarhus University.

More information about the project is available at PRIO’s web pages:  

Researchers: Marta Bivand Erdal, Arnfinn H. Midtbøen, Grete Brochmann, Pieter Bevelander, Per Mouritsen

Pathways to Integration: The Second Generation in Education and Work in Norway

Schedule: 2015-2018
Employer: Norges forskningsråd

Project Aim

What pathways to integration characterise the transition from education to work among descendants of immigrants in Norway? Are they socially isolated and incorporated into marginalized sectors of the economy? Or are their achievements in education translated into relevant work and prominent positions in social life, contributing to a ‘remaking’ of mainstream society, in which ethnic background will play a less significant role in determining individual life chances in the future?

In this project, an interdisciplinary team of sociologists, economists and anthropologists will use both quantitative and qualitative data to explore the dynamics of generational change, focusing on the pathways to integration experienced by male and female descendants of immigrants in Norway.

Project Approach

The project has four closely related subprojects. First, we will investigate whether the immigrant parents’ success or failure in the Norwegian labour market affect the labour market integration of the second generation.

Second, we will study the extent to which descendants of immigrants’ efforts in the educational sector is transferred into relevant work, and how family obligations and transnational marriages affect employment patterns of second generation men and women.

Third, we will explore whether an elite of descendants of immigrants is in the making, by conducting comprehensive qualitative case studies among students in medicine, law and economics, as well as among lawyers, doctors and economists that have managed to gain positions in the labour market. Fourth, we will study descendants of immigrants enrolled in vocational education, following 1) those who invest in more education, 2) those who end up working in vocational professions, and 3) those who are tracked into less privileged positions or even into permanent positions outside the labour market. The project will provide new and highly policy-relevant knowledge about the processes of integration and ultimately on the long-term effects of migration on the Norwegian society.

The third subproject is part of an ongoing, comparative study of elite formation among descendants of immigrants in the Netherlands, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden and the US. This project, ELITES: Pathways to Success, is led by Professor Maurice Crul at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam. Professor Crul is also part of the Norwegian project’s international advisory board, along with Professor Richard Alba from the Graduate Centre at the City University of New York and Dr. Katharine Charsley from the University of Bristol.

Further information:

Conditions and impacts of welfare mix. Comparative analysis of policy making,public discourse and service quality

Schedule: 2015-2019
Employer: Forskningsrådet

Project Background

The fundament of European welfare societies is to give the whole population high quality services in health, care, and education. This can be obtained in a number of ways, and a core question is if the public, nonprofit organizations or for-profit firms provide the services. The different providers have different strengths, and the composition of providers, the welfare mix, is therefore crucial for the quality of the services provided to the public.

The population is becoming more diverse and has higher expectations. It is a challenge for the providers to offer good services to a population with increasing religious, cultural, and economic diversity. A possible solution is to promote active citizenship where the users are empowered to influence the content and of the service.

Moreover, the states need to mobilize the resources available from civil society, local communities, and individuals. One way to obtain this is through policies that create the best possible welfare mix in order to spur active citizenship.

Project Approach

It is within this context the project takes on the following questions:

1) How is the welfare mix in Europe changing? We investigate this by analyzing the experiences from Norway with a Scandinavian welfare model, Germany with a corporative model, and United Kingdom with a liberal model.

2) A new EU directive for public procurement will be implemented in the EU and EEC countries in 2016. What room for maneuver do the states have to adopt the implementation to national policy goals? We investigate this by looking at how policy makers and stakeholders in the three countries differently approach the directive.

3) How do the users experience the differences between public, for-profit, and nonprofit providers? We investigate this through a survey to the service users in Norwegian municipalities.

Further information:

Researchers: Karl Henrik Sivesind, Signe Bock Segaard, Håkon Solbu Trætteberg, Annette Zimmer, Joachim Benedikt Pahl, Jeremy Kendall, Nadia Brookes

Family policies: Fathers’ quota, sharing of parental leave among mothers and fathers and cash-for-childcare.

Schedule: 2015-2016
Employer: Barne-, likestillings- og inkluderingsdepartementet

Project Purpose

The purpose of the project was to review existing research on paternity leave, effects of mothers' and fathers’ sharing of parental leave and the use of cash-for-childcare. Every year a large amount of money is transferred to parents of young children through these schemes. The design of the schemes affects parents' adaptation at the intersection of labour force participation and childcare.

Project Results

The Ministry for Children, Equality and Social Inclusion wanted a review of existing research on family policy transmission schemes. The project has reviewed the existing research on the impacts of the various family policy schemes and assessed the strengths and limitations of research from Norway and other Nordic countries, published in 2010-2015. Knowledge gaps and unanswered research questions were also identified. 

The state of freedom of speech in Norway 2015-2017

Schedule: April 2015-may 2017
Employer: Fritt Ord



Project Background

This study is a continuation of a broader project called The state of freedom of speech in Norway – the Freedom of expression foundation’s monitor project, which was carried out by Institute for Social Research (ISF), in cooperation with IMK, FAFO, TNS Gallup and lawyer Jon Wessel-Aas, in 2013-2014.

In the first round of the project, we addressed the issue of freedom of speech from a variety of perspectives, focusing on the preconditions of freedom of speech, freedom of speech in light of multiculturalism, digitalization and shifting media structures, security, control and surveillance and the terms of freedom of speech in the labour market. In this second round of the project we will explore more in depth the dynamics of public debate, focusing on the key actors in defining public discussions and well as on the normative processes regulating which opinions and ‘voices’ are expressed in the public and which are silenced.

Project Approach

The project has three parts: First, we will investigate whether Norwegian journalists and the general Norwegian public’s attitudes toward freedom of speech have changed in light of the terror attacks in Paris and Copenhagen in 2015.  Second, we will study the development in media discussions about religion, migration and freedom of speech in the period from the cartoon debate in 2006 to today, paying particular attention to the opinions expressed by editors and journalists. Third, we will focus on three groups that are particularly exposed to critique and harassment in public debates; politicians, ethnic and religious minorities and right-wing opponents of migration and Islam.

The project is conducted in cooperation with Professor Terje Rasmussen and Dr. Terje Colbjørnsen at the University of Oslo and Professor Hallvard Moe at the University of Bergen.

Media Coverage

Video: From the conference "The Fate of Freedom of Expression in Liberal Democracies", Kari Steen-Johnsen, October 2015, Foundation for Individual Rights in Education

Researchers: Arnfinn H. Midtbøen, Kari Steen-Johnsen, Bernard Enjolras, Kjersti Thorbjørnsrud, Audun Fladmoe, Synne Sætrang, Terje Rasmussen, Terje Colbjørnsen, Hallvard Moe, Karoline Ihlebæk, Ingrid Endresen Thorseth, Marjan Nadim

The Local Democracy Survey 2015-2017

Schedule: April 2016-june 2017
Employer: Kommunal- og moderniseringsdepartementet

Project Goal

The project goal is to contribute to knowledge about the local election in 2015 in particular, and the function and legitimacy of the local democracy in general.

Project approach

The theme of the survey is voters' behavior, local party systems, voter participation, the municipality as a political arena, output-democracy, parties as intermediaries in local politics, municipalities reform, elderly participation and representation in local politics and campaigning and media.

Researchers: Jo Saglie, Signe Bock Segaard, Marte Winsvold, Lawrence E. Rose, Johannes Bergh, Dag Arne Christensen, Bjarte Folkestad, Hilmar Langhelle Mjelde, Jan Erling Klausen, Jacob Aars, Sveinung Arnesen, Richard Matland, Tor Bjørklund

Domestic violence in families of majority and minority background: Similarity and difference

Schedule: 2014-2019
Employer: Justis- og beredskapsdepartementet

The project is one of nine projects in The Domestic Violence Research Program which is a five year program at Norwegian Social Research – NOVA at Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, financed by the Ministry of Justice and Public Security. For more information about the program, see here.

This project will study similarities and differences between domestic violence in ethnic minority and majority families, with a special focus on so called honour based violence. The analysis will primarily be based on existing data and data collected in other parts of the program, including survey data, qualitative interviews and legal documents.

Researchers: Anja Bredal

A process evaluation of the Karin model pilot, a coordinated approach to victims of domestic violence

Schedule: 2014-2019
Employer: Justis- og beredskapsdepartementet

This is a process evaluation of a pilot project at Stovner police station in Oslo aiming at more coordinated services toward victims of violence in close relations. A Norwegian version of the Swedish so called Karin-model will consist of police personnel including domestic violence analysts and investigators as well as social service personnel. The overall aim is to offer better, more holistic and coordinated services to adult female and male victims of interpersonal violence. The study will be based on survey data and qualitative interviews.

It is one of nine projects in The Domestic Violence Research Program which is a five year program at Norwegian Social Research – NOVA at Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, financed by the Ministry of Justice and Public Security. For more information about the Research Program, see here.  

Researchers: Anja Bredal

Domestic violence: The changing role of NGOs

Schedule: 2014-2019
Employer: Justis- og beredskapsdepartementet

Violence in close relations has to an increasing extent become a responsibility of public authorities and agencies. This project studies the changing roles of NGOs in this policy and service area. The project is one of nine projects in The Domestic Violence Research Program which is a five year program at Norwegian Social Research – NOVA at Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, financed by the Ministry of Justice and Public Security. More information about the Reserach Program, see here

Researchers: Anja Bredal